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|Title:||Association between insecticides resistance status and host preference on plasmodium falciparum infection in anopheles mosquito vectors of malaria in Mwea and Ahero rice schemes,Kenya|
|Abstract:||Prevalence of human malaria in nature is partly dependent on the proportion of Anopheles vector population infected by Plasmodium parasite, their preference for human host, and impediments to vector control initiatives such as resistance to insecticides. How these factors associate in the Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902, and Anopheles funestus Giles, 1900, complex populations in Mwea and Ahero rice schemes was investigated to putatively establish their collective impact on local malaria transmission. A total of 600 female Anopheles gravid mosquitoes in each of the zones were sampled indoors and outdoors between the months of April and November in the year 2010. In the laboratory, F1 generations were raised separately from each individual ﬁeld sampled female Anopheles mosquito and assessed for susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin (pyrethroids), DDT (organochloride), bendiocarb (carbamate) or fenitrothion (organophosphate) using standard WHO procedures, with susceptible An. gambiae s.s Kisumu strain as positive control. The ﬁeld sampled mosquitoes were identiﬁed morphologically using taxonomic keys as An. gambiae or An. funestus complex and further to their respective sibling species using rDNA PCR. Blood meal indices (BMIs) in the respective abdomens were analysed using blood meal ELISA. Infection of the ﬁeld sampled Anopheles mosquito by Plasmodium falciparum Welch, 1897 was assessed using sporozoite ELISA.A1l Anopheles mosquito samples from Mwea were An. arabiensis Patton, 1905. Anopheles mosquito samples from Ahero were An. arabiensis (42%), An. funestus sensu stricto Giles, I900 (57%), An. rivulorum Leesoni, 1935 (0.6%), An. parensis Gillies, l935(0.3%) and An. leesoni Evans, 1931 (0.3%). An. arabiensis sampled from Mwea were resistant to pyrethroids. An. arabiensis and An. funestus complex sampled from Ahero were susceptible to all test insecticides. BMIs for samples from Mwea and Ahero indicated higher zoophily than anthropophily. Proportions of malaria vectors infected with P. falciparum in Mwea and Ahero were 0.5% and 1.8% respectively. ln conclusion therefore, there is no deﬁnite association between resistance to insecticidesand host preference on natural P. falciparum infection in Anopheles mosquito sibling species in rice Agro- ecosystems. This ﬁnding implies that each of the determined parameters is independent and malaria control initiatives should focus on each separately.|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Health Sciences|
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