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Title: Assessment of User Activities on Performance of Pit Latrines Serving Low Income Settlements in Nakuru County, Kenya
Authors: Guda, Fredrick Owino
Keywords: User Activities -- Pit Latrines -- Low Income Settlements
Issue Date: Apr-2017
Publisher: Egerton University
Abstract: Proper disposal of human excreta plays a vital role in the provision of primary health care. Developing countries such as Kenya face a problem of human excreta disposal due to inefficient or low coverage of sewerage systems. Most people in the developing countries use pit latrines as the main means of excreta disposal. However, pit latrines are posing health risks because of numerous failures and inefficient management practices. Nakuru and Njoro sub-counties has experienced rapid population growth that has caused mushrooming of unplanned settlements. Such settlements have no connection to municipal sewerage lines, and are mostly served by pit latrines. The objectives of this study were to investigate management practices, fill up rates, and physicochemical properties of pit latrine contents. It involved a survey of the user management activities, undertaking bi-monthly monitoring of fill up rates and laboratory analysis of the physicochemical properties of the pit contents along the pit depth. The laboratory analysis was conducted using standard methods for the analysis of wastewater; pit latrine fill up rate determination was done using laser technology while the pit latrine users activities and household information was obtained through a questionnaire and an observation schedule. Descriptive statistics, one way ANOVA. Fisher’s Exact Test and Pearson"s Correlation were used to analyse the data at 95% confidence limit. The result showed significant differences in the management activities across units of the study, while the physicochemical characteristics of the pit contents varied significantly within units and between study locations at p<0.05. The mean individual contribution of faecal sludge was 42 L/p/yr with the highest accumulation rates documented in Kaptembwo. The total organic load of the sludge reduced by 59.9% from the surface to 3M depth, the reduction was significant and showed negative correlation with the volatile solids. Not only does the result show variability of pit latrine content and performance, but it also shows the significance of incorporating pit latrine management to ensure efficient performance. Property owners need to understand the relationship between the number of users and the pit fill up rates to effectively plan for duration of use and post fill up management programs.
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Science

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