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Title: Association between risk factors for lifestyle diseases and prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and diabetes in the swahili community: The case of Kisauni and old town districts in Mombasa, Kenya
Authors: Ndungi, Faith Ngundi
Keywords: Lifestyle Diseases -- Hypertension and Diabetes
Issue Date: Oct-2012
Publisher: Egerton University
Abstract: There is an increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases in developing countries. The rise in these diseases reflects a significant change in dietary habits, physical activity levels and socio-economic status among other lifestyle factors. The study aimed at determining the association between selected risk factors for lifestyle diseases and the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and hypertension among the Swahili community of Old Town and Kisauni districts in Mombasa County. Old Town has a typical Swahili culture while Kisauni district has slightly deviated. A one-time cross-sectional study design was administered. Systematic sampling was used to randomly select 207 households. Data was collected on food consumption, dietary habits and physical activity. Focus Group Discussions and Key Informants in-depth Interviews were used to collect qualitative data. Weight, height, waist circumference, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and skin-fold thickness were taken. Body Mass Index (BMI), Arm Fat Area (AFA) and Arm Muscle Area (AMA) were then calculated using these measurements where applicable. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11.5 computer software. Results indicated that the mean number of household members in Kisauni district was 3.4 whereas in Old Town it was 3.8. About 36.8% of the individuals had at least primary education. Most (69.1%) of the women were housewives while the men were either businessmen or employed. Many (45.2%) of the women earned an income of KES ≤10,000 and most (87.4%) men earned an income of KES ≥30,000. Members of this community from Kisauni and Old Town districts had average knowledge and were aware of healthy eating, obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Their dietary habits and practices involved consumption of Swahili foods that were high in fats, sugars and coconut milk. Most (75.8%) of them had low physical activity. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.48% and 35.86% respectively in Kisauni district and 37.55% and 52.32% respectively in Old Town. Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus and hypertension was 11.1% and 39.9% respectively in Kisauni district and 14.8% and 44.0% respectively in Old town. Physical activity levels were associated with overweight and obesity (p<0.05). Obesity in the Swahili community as assessed by BMI and waist circumference was associated with diabetes and hypertension (p<0.05). There is therefore need to acquire sustainability of consumption of healthy diets and physical activity in order to prevent obesity and some of its comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes.
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Science

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